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Golden Rules

When analyzing operational amplifiers, there are a few rules that need to be taken into consideration in order to solve circuits using KVL or KCL.

  1. Because the output voltage does not dpened on the output current, the output impedance equals zero.
  2. The input impedance i_+=i_-=0.
  3. When there is a negative feedback, both inputs have the same voltage. In other words, V_+ is equal to V_-.
  4. When solving circuits using the nodes method, write node equations at V_+ and V_-, but not at V_o.